Carnitine is a salt that is easily soluble in water and is a type of amine.
Carnitine is basically divided into two forms: L-carnitine and D-carnitine, but it is L-carnitine that is physically active.
D-carnitine is commonly referred to as L-carnitine, as a potential negative role has been reported to undermine the in vivo response of L-carnitine. L-carnitine is an amino acid similar in structure to choline.
L-carnitine was found in muscle tissue in 1905. Carnitine is primarily involved in the transfer of enteric fatty acids from cell cytosol to mitochondria.
Because enteric acid is oxidized within the mitochondria, carnitine promotes energy production from fat.
Mitochondria et al The membrane-activated enteric acid is temporarily combined with the hydroglyph of carnitine to form acyl carnitine, which is transported and metabolized into the mitochondria.
In phase I, the enteric acid is oxidized to acetyl CoA, which produces acetyl residue, and in stage 2, acetyl residue is oxidized to carbon dioxide through a citric acid circuit.
In the last three steps, NADH and FADH2 transfer electrons to the respiratory chain of the mitochondria, which pass through the respiratory chain to oxygen to produce energy ATP.
By generating acetyl carnitine inside the mitochondria, carnitine can later serve as a reservoir for acetyl groups entering the TCA cycle.
Furthermore, the oxidation of branch-chain amino acids (BCAAs) is activated by carnitine.
These carnitine activities stimulate the metabolism of hypertrophic glucose by reducing the production of hypertrophic dehydrogenase and lactic acid.
All of these actions are very important for motor muscles, as aerobic endurance exercises rely primarily on fatty acid oxidation. During exercise BCAA oxidation is recognized as a small but important source of energy.
Emphasizing this function is when 90% of the carnitine in the body is held in skeletal muscle. It's the door.
2) Deficiency symptoms.
Carnitine is synthesized from lysine and metionine and is therefore not classified as an essential vitamin for adults. Although in small quantities (about 50 mg/d) is taken from animal diets.
It is high in meat and dairy products and has very low carnitine content in vegetables, fruits and grains.
However, vegetarian people also show normal blood concentration of carnitine, which makes it difficult to be considered an essential nutrient that must be consumed for a meal.
Carnitine is rarely present in plants except fungi, but even strict vegetarians can avoid deficiency problems if they consume adequate amounts of lysine and methionine.
In humans, carnitine deficiency occurs due to the genetic lack of essential amino acids needed for carnitine synthesis, damage to the organ involved in carnitine biosynthesis, and poor carnitine biosynthesis due to the blocking of synthetic pathways.
In addition, extremely poor protein nutrition, such as kwashikor, reduces the concentration of carnitine in the blood, and in the dialysis of chronic kidney disease and long-term non-alert feeding, resulting in both damage to fatty acid oxidation and accumulation of fat.
In addition, deficiency of in vivo carnitine results in symptoms such as muscle weakness, muscular dystrophy, fatigue, myocardial infarction, metabolic oxidation, brain disease, and hypoglycemia similar to vitamin C deficiency.
2. Eating carnitine and exercising
Changes in carnitine metabolism through exercise appear to depend on strength and load.
Changes in cannitine metabolism through modern biopsy cannot be confirmed after 30 to 60 minutes of low-intensity or low-maximum motion. But during or after high-intensity exercise, free carnitine is the most common type of exercise.
The decrease and the increase in acrylic cannitine have been confirmed through modern biopsy.
As such, carnitine metabolism is affected by violent motion and has a small impact from mild intensity.
Studies of Carnitine intake and physical performance show that intake of carnitine for six months, 1 to 6 grams a day, has continuously increased the plasma level of total carnitine without any toxic or negative effects.
Six trained street walkers were given 4g of L-carnitine a day for two weeks.
The levels of total carnitine, free carnitine, and acrylic carnitine in the serum increased significantly after ingestion of carnitine, indicating that it was absorbed into the tissue.
The maximum oxygen intake after the intake of carnitine increased slightly (6%) and showed a significant difference.
Acute reaction studies confirmed significant changes in plasma milk, neutral fat, and fatty acids after exercise when 17 elite swimmers were intravenously injected 1g of L-carnitine 60 minutes before the exercise in a double-blind cross-examination attempt. Changes in carnitine metabolism in plasma and urine mean an increase in free carnitine during intakes and an increase in acetyl carnitine levels after exercise.
the conclusion of these studies is consistent with the assumption that an increase in free carnitine helps more fatty acids be used as energy sources in strenuous exercise.
Carnitine changes in plasma and urine, along with decreased plasma milk acid and initial glucose levels, stimulate the activity of hyperplastic dehydrogenase and convert lactic acid into hyperplastic acid to form acetyl carnitine.
This suggests that carnitine can be treated as a kind of buffer to reduce intramuscular lactic acid and preserve acetyl groups.
Therefore, the acute reaction of carnitine (one-time intake) is associated with more effective motor performance.
However, two studies of 10 people showed that the intake of L-carnitine during the maximum hypoxia exercise did not have a significant effect, with daily intake of 0.5g, about 4-8 times less than other studies showing erogenic effects.
That is, apparently, more than 2 grams a day is needed to increase aerobic exercise parameters. As such, eating carnitine as ergenic acids produced complex results.
To sum up the above, the effects are minimal during low-intensity exercise, but it is positive for motor metabolism and performance to consume more than 1g of carnitine immediately before exercise or once a day, more than 7 days a day.
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